Gluten Reduction and Risk of Celiac Disease

Study Purpose

Celiac disease shares many features of other autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Recently, it was published that higher amounts of gluten intake increased the risk for celiac disease. Optimal amounts of gluten to be introduced during weaning have not yet been established. The aim is to investigate if a gluten-restricted diet (e.g. below 3 gram per day) will reduce the risk of develop CDA and IA in genetically predisposed children by the age of 5 years. Children who screened positive for HLA DQ2/X (X is neither DQ2 nor DQ8) in the GPPAD-02 (ASTR1D [ Identifier NCT03316261]) screening will be contacted by a study nurse.

Recruitment Criteria

Accepts Healthy Volunteers

Healthy volunteers are participants who do not have a disease or condition, or related conditions or symptoms

Study Type

An interventional clinical study is where participants are assigned to receive one or more interventions (or no intervention) so that researchers can evaluate the effects of the interventions on biomedical or health-related outcomes.

An observational clinical study is where participants identified as belonging to study groups are assessed for biomedical or health outcomes.

Searching Both is inclusive of interventional and observational studies.

Eligible Ages 6 Months - 6 Months
Gender All
More Inclusion & Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion Criteria:

  • - children screened positive for HLA DQ2/X (X is neither DQ2 or DQ8) - children who refused enrolment to the on-going study PreSiCe (ClinicalTrials.
gov Identifier NCT03562221)

Exclusion Criteria:

  • - congenital chronic disorder where intervention with diet may be affected.
- written informed consent from both caregivers are missing

Trial Details

Trial ID:

This trial id was obtained from, a service of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, providing information on publicly and privately supported clinical studies of human participants with locations in all 50 States and in 196 countries.


Phase 1: Studies that emphasize safety and how the drug is metabolized and excreted in humans.

Phase 2: Studies that gather preliminary data on effectiveness (whether the drug works in people who have a certain disease or condition) and additional safety data.

Phase 3: Studies that gather more information about safety and effectiveness by studying different populations and different dosages and by using the drug in combination with other drugs.

Phase 4: Studies occurring after FDA has approved a drug for marketing, efficacy, or optimal use.

Lead Sponsor

The sponsor is the organization or person who oversees the clinical study and is responsible for analyzing the study data.

Lund University
Principal Investigator

The person who is responsible for the scientific and technical direction of the entire clinical study.

Daniel Agardh, MD, PhD
Principal Investigator Affiliation Lund University
Agency Class

Category of organization(s) involved as sponsor (and collaborator) supporting the trial.

Overall Status Recruiting
Countries Sweden

The disease, disorder, syndrome, illness, or injury that is being studied.

Celiac Disease in Children, Autoimmune Diseases, type1diabetes
Additional Details

Gluten is a complex mixture of proteins, mainly gliadin and glutenin, rich in proline and glutamine amino acids which make these proteins resistant to complete degradation by enzymes in the small intestinal. Intolerance to gluten leads to inflammation of the intestinal epithelium and villous atrophy, a disorder called celiac disease. Celiac disease shares many features of other autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). First, celiac disease is associated with certain HLA genotypes of whom 95% of all patients with celiac disease carry the haplotypes DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 (abbreviated DQ2) and the reminder 5% DQA1*0301-DQB1*0302 (abbreviated DQ8). There is a gene dose effect of HLA-DQ on the risk of develop celiac disease; 20% of the children homozygous for HLA-DQ2/DQ2 will develop celiac disease by 10 years of age. Second, celiac disease is also strongly associated with the presence of autoantibodies directed against tissue transglutaminase (tTGA) that occurs in 100% of children with celiac disease. Timing of gluten introduction and breastfeeding duration have previously been proposed to influence risk for celiac disease. However, based on the results from the multinational birth cohort study The Environmental determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study and other observational studies, timing of gluten introduction seems not associated with celiac disease in genetically at-risk children. In an RCT, introduction of small amounts of gluten at the age of 4-6 months did not reduce the risk for celiac disease by the age of 3 years in genetically at-risk children. Current international infant feeding recommendations recommend that gluten is introduced into the infant's diet anytime between 4-12 months of age and that consumption of large quantities of gluten should be avoided during the first month after gluten introduction and during infancy. Recently, the TEDDY study published that higher amounts of gluten intake increased the risk for celiac disease, which have been confirmed in two other observational cohort studies. In the TEDDY study, daily gluten intake was associated with higher increased risk of developing persistently positive tTGA, a definition coined celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA), as well as with celiac disease for every 1-g/day increase in gluten intake. Optimal amounts of gluten to be introduced during weaning have not yet been established. It is well known that an overlap between celiac disease and T1D exists most likely due to shared genetic risks of HLA-DQ2 and/or DQ8 in both disorders. Prospective studies in infants genetically predisposed to T1D and celiac disease showed that antibody positivity to both disorders begins in the first 1-3 years of life. The study aim is to investigate if a gluten-restricted diet will reduce the risk of develop CDA and IA in genetically predisposed children by the age of 5 years.

Arms & Interventions


No Intervention: No intervention

The group will be followed without any intervention, with regular visits at the research clinic.

Experimental: Gluten reduced diet

Subjects will follow a diet that does not exceed a daily intake of 3 gram gluten. The group will be followed with regular visits at the research clinic.


Behavioral: - Gluten reduced diet

Dietary advice focusing on reducing gluten intake in children

Contact a Trial Team

If you are interested in learning more about this trial, find the trial site nearest to your location and contact the site coordinator via email or phone. We also strongly recommend that you consult with your healthcare provider about the trials that may interest you and refer to our terms of service below.

International Sites

Malmö, Sweden




Clinical Research Center (CRC), Bldng 60:11

Malmö, , 20502

Site Contact

Carin Andrén Aronsson, PhD

+46 40391113

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